The Paris Agreement did not end this dichotomy. No new method of allocating emissions between countries has been put in place, for example. B convergence towards equal per capita emissions or the distinction between survival and luxury emissions (see Cartha et al. 2018); IPCC, 2013). Nevertheless, the Paris Agreement starts from the 1992 dichotomy in at least three respects. The 1997 Kyoto Protocol contained emission reduction targets or limitations for Annex I countries, but not for non-Annex I countries. The protocol has therefore only cemented mitigation and reinforced the dichotomy. This article cannot indicate what would be an ideal `cacade` for adaptation in terms of consistency with the subtle differentiation in the Paris Agreement, especially since the Paris Agreement does not make it compulsory to provide information on adaptation in the NDCs. In addition, detailed reference values of countries` adjustment efforts and needs would be needed. Although emerging markets have the highest percentage (14%) of NDCs including measures, plans or strategies for all five sectors (see Figure 2), LDCs and SIDS are the most important for adjustment. The validity of the results is underscored by a similar caissation with regard to the mention of vulnerable sectors and climate risks in NDCs or the number of countries that include information on adaptation costs in their NDCs (see Pauw et al. 2016). Results in climate finance, technology transfer and capacity building also appear to be on the table (see Figures 3 to 6).

While the break is clearly visible for requests for assistance, no cascade can be observed for promises of support. As in the case of adaptation, this article cannot dictate what an ”ideal” cashier would be in terms of consistency with the subtle differentiation of the Paris Agreement. On the one hand, the Paris Agreement does not contain any indication that would justify such requirements. On the other hand, it is not within the scope of this article to present an expectation based on the extent to which requests and contributions for support in NDCs reflect existing support flows or country needs (see for example. B Betzold and Hamer (2017) and Klöck et al. (2018) for debates on climate finance allocation). Below we describe the cacade for assistance requests and, later, for the provision of assistance. To ensure effective and safe participation, a global agreement on climate change must be seen as fair by participating countries. .

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